Limestone County authorities said the 63-year-old woman, of Elkmont, Ala., is accused of operating a puppy mill and keeping the dead dogs on ice.
Sheriff's Department investigator Eric King says one dog was dead in a kennel and the remainder were wrapped in plastic and stored in Johnson's freezer.
The dead dogs were discovered last Friday by police.
Officials say 28 dogs were found alive, but two have since died.
Athens veterinarian Robert Pitman says the surviving dogs are emaciated.
Johnson was being held at the Limestone County jail in lieu of $32,250 bond.
Elkmont is about 200 miles north of Montgomery.