Two U.S. soldiers were killed in fierce fighting for control of the south-central city of Najaf.
In the closest ground fighting yet to Saddam's seat of power in Baghdad, U.S. troops with the 3rd Infantry Division pushed into the Euphrates River town of Hindiyah on Monday. Iraqi soldiers fired from behind brick walls and hedges with small arms and rocket-propelled grenades, and U.S. troops returned fire with 25mm cannon and machine guns.
At least 35 Iraqis were killed and U.S. forces captured several dozen others who identified themselves as members of the Republican Guard — Saddam's best-trained and best-equipped fighters. Their uniforms carried the elite unit's triangular insignia and they said they were with the Nebuchadnezzar Brigade, based in Saddam's hometown of Tikrit.
Iraq remained defiant Monday; in Baghdad, Foreign Minister Naji Sabri questioned the legitimacy of the strikes and called on coalition soldiers to surrender.
"America and Britain have no choice but to surrender and withdraw," Sabri said. "They will not leave our land safe and sound if they continue to be stubborn in their aggression. We will confront them with all we have ... No one will be safe."
"We will turn our deserts into a big graveyard for the Americans and British," he said.
The latest menacing warning came as a senior official told CBS News Correspondent Cami McCormick: "We're prepared to pay a very high price. If that means a lot of casualties, there will be a lot of casualties. There's going to come a time when things may be much more shocking."
The gas masks and chemical protection suits found by coalition troops are ominous signs, the official said.
"We have found a lot more than we are comfortable with," he said.
While the hunt for weapons of mass destruction goes on, the primary mission now, the official said, is to fight.
Coalition attacks on leadership and command and control centers in Baghdad were carried out simultaneously by multiple B-1, B-2 and B-52 bombers, according to U.S. Central Command. A 2 a.m. missile strike on the Information Ministry touched off a fire at the nearby 28 April Shopping Center, named for Saddam's birthday. A telephone office was struck later in the day, Iraqis said.
With constant aerial bombardments on the capital and ground forces advancing from the south, west and north, U.S. military leaders defended the pace of the war effort Sunday, answering criticism that they had underestimated the vigor of Iraqi resistance.
"We have the power to be patient in this, and we're not going to do anything before we're ready," said Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
There is good reason for caution as troops face persistent danger from plainclothes killers and warnings from Iraqi officials that there will be more suicide attacks like the one that killed four Americans on Saturday.
Sabri said more than 5,000 Arabs have come to Iraq to help attack the invaders. Iraqi dissidents and Arab media have claimed that Saddam has opened a training camp for volunteers willing to carry out suicide bombings.
In the north, U.S. aircraft pounded Iraqi positions near the town of Kalak on Monday, aiding Kurdish fighters as they seized territory from Saddam's fleeing troops. Under relentless attack, Iraqi forces could be seen abandoning positions on a ridge west of the Great Zab River.
While the coalition is seeing real weaknesses in the Republican Guard, the official told McCormick, "I am not going to claim victory tomorrow."
In Najaf, two soldiers from the 1st and 2nd brigades of the 101st Airborne Division were killed Monday when Iraqi fighters dressed as civilians opened fire with weapons mounted on vehicles, said Capt. Kenric Bourne of the 101st.
The 2nd brigade is fighting from the north and the 1st is closing in from the south to try to isolate the Shiite Muslim holy city of 300,000 people about 100 miles south of Baghdad.
A day earlier, the Army's 82nd Airborne Division killed about 100 "regime terror squad members" and captured about 50 Iraqi militants in Najaf and another nearby town, Central Command said.
It was unclear whether U.S. forces would try to capture Najaf or just surround it. There are too many Iraqi fighters to bypass them or leave them unattended; they are a danger to supply lines on the way to Baghdad.
Coalition forces also are leery of damaging Najaf's holy shrines, which could anger Shiites in Iraq and elsewhere, most notably Iran.
In the southern city of Nasiriyah, where fighting has been fierce for a week, Marines on Sunday secured buildings held by an Iraqi infantry division that contained large caches of weapons and chemical decontamination equipment.
In Basra, Iraq's second-largest city, British forces continued to skirmish with militiamen loyal to Saddam. As many as 1,000 Royal Marines and supporting troops destroyed a bunker and several tanks in a commando assault Sunday. About 30 Iraqis were captured and an unknown number were killed. One Royal Marine was killed in the assault.
British forces also discovered a cache of arms and explosives at a school in the southern port city of Umm Qasr. Australian mine clearance experts were called to dismantle the weaponry Monday, Australian defense spokesman Brigadier Mike Hannan said.
Australian divers also are working to clear a sunken boat loaded with mines discovered near the grain terminal in Umm Qasr, Hannan said.
Umm Qasr, Iraq's only deep-water port, is an important conduit for humanitarian aid and military supplies, but shipments have been delayed because of fears that waters may be mined.