James Henderson, 25, was recaptured about four hours later with his hands still behind him in plastic restraints, police said.
Thursday's escape followed the March escape of rape suspect Brian Nichols, who is accused of overpowering a sheriff's deputy at the Fulton County Courthouse, grabbing her gun and killing the judge overseeing his trial and a court reporter. He's also accused of killing a sheriff's deputy and a federal agent after fleeing the courthouse.
Sheriff's Sgt. Nikita Adams Hightower said Henderson was under the supervision of Atlanta police when the escape occurred, but added that an investigation was continuing.
"Every (escape) incident is a serious incident and is of concern to the sheriff," Hightower said.
Last year, the federal government took over the jail for six months over a series of escapes, other security lapses and squalid conditions.
Atlanta police had arrested Henderson early Thursday on charges involving marijuana possession, child endangerment and reckless conduct. He was later loaded into a police vehicle with three other suspects in unrelated cases and fled out the door while being unloaded at the garage.
Atlanta police said Henderson possessed marijuana when they arrested him and two others Thursday morning as part of an investigation into an alleged child prostitution ring.
Henderson was caught when a resident of a nearby neighborhood spotted him hiding at a home under construction. Obstruction and escape counts were added to the earlier charges.
By Mike Stobbe